Youth-Oriented Interventions Reducing Underage Drinking NCBI Bookshelf

Back-end data connected to PIN codes can also be used to determine whether participants finished viewing the intervention or control content or only completed a portion of either. Meta-analyses of school-based interventions (e.g., Gottfredson and
Wilson, 2003) have shown that they vary widely in
their ability to effect alcohol-related outcomes. Research has shown, however, that
some school-based approaches are more effective than others at
reducing youth alcohol use. The goal of delaying the onset of
alcohol use is most effective with students who have not yet
begun drinking, and given that American adolescents tend to have
their first drink between ages 12 and 14, education with this
age group and those slightly younger is sensible (Paglia and Room,

  • These categories were then subjected to synthesis to produce a single comprehensive set of synthesised findings.
  • In essence, they were implemented in May to June 2021 but continued in the beginning of the next school year, due to the lack of availability of some school staff (Fig. 3).
  • Overall drinking frequency will be assessed with an item asking, “During the past 30 days, how many days did you have at least one drink of any alcoholic beverage, such as beer, wine, hard seltzer, mixed drinks, or shots of liquor,” with response options from 0 to 30 days.
  • In
    addition, these education approaches could be incorporated
    into programs that specifically target groups at risk for
    heavy drinking and individuals who, through the college
    judicial system or screening provided through university
    health care systems (see below), are identified as heavy

We will also evaluate main effects of the intervention on overall drinking days (i.e., pregaming days and non-pregaming days) in the past 30 days, average consumed on a typical drinking day in the past 30 days, and number of alcohol-related consequences experienced in the past 30 days. The context of
broad media coverage in which the anti-tobacco campaigns have
been mounted would not likely be matched by a campaign against
youth alcohol use. Similarly, the complementary changes in the
normative, legal, and regulatory environments around tobacco do
not apply to an effort aimed at youthful alcohol consumption. The ban on underage drinking struggles with its
nearly universal trial use among youth, the majority view that
moderate daily use is not high-risk, and acceptability for use
among adults.

Warning Signs of Underage Drinking

As a fall back, in case the participant does not have access to a smartphone or does not own a smartphone, we will give participants the opportunity to conduct their self-control training on their personal computer using their web browser. Participants will practice on the task twice per day for the four weeks duration of the intervention. The challenging version of the task requires participants to respond to a series of word items in which the word meaning and the color of the ink in which it is written are incongruent (e.g., the word “green” written in red ink). There are equal numbers of word items with four possible colors (“red”, “green”, “yellow”, and “blue”) presented in random order.

  • Next, participants will be given an envelope corresponding to the condition to which they have been allocated that contains instructions for the mental simulation or control manipulations.
  • Emerging research suggests that physicians’ rates of screening
    adolescents for alcohol use can be improved (from an average of
    59 percent to 76 percent) by training physicians on the
    knowledge, attitudes, and skills that are necessary to create
    behavior change (Lustig et al., 2001).
  • Several universities offer alcohol-free social and
    recreational activities, often on Friday and Saturday
    nights, when students often consume alcohol.
  • Additionally, although we contacted the original authors to gather details about the intervention, when possible, some data from the reviewed studies were unavailable.
  • The staff at the participating schools will be invited to a specific presentation of the results.

One of the challenges for treatment providers is that evaluation of
treatment programs is costly and difficult (Kaminer and Bukstein, 1989; Milby, 1981). However, evaluation not only validates effective approaches, it also
provides information that is essential for improving treatment
strategies (Kaminer
and Bukstein, 1989). Continuing Care
Continuing care is crucial to achieving positive long-term
outcomes (McKay et
al., 2002).

About this article

A poorly planned intervention can worsen the situation — your loved one may feel attacked and become isolated or more resistant to treatment. More resources for a variety of healthcare professionals can be found in the Additional Links for Patient Care. That means you shouldn’t argue, yell, threaten them, or vent anger in a harmful way at them. If you have health insurance, the law requires providers to offer substance use treatment.

  • Research has shown, however, that
    some school-based approaches are more effective than others at
    reducing youth alcohol use.
  • Consulting an addiction professional, such as a licensed alcohol and drug counselor, a social worker, a psychologist, a psychiatrist, or an interventionist, can help you organize an effective intervention.
  • However, no study found significant differences in the outcome variables of alcohol consumption according to supervision.
  • Regarding assessment reactivity during the 28 days of these daily surveys, research has cited minimal reactivity to daily diary assessments; there is no evidence that prompting individuals to assess their alcohol use leads one to drink [66, 99].

As more medications become available, people may be able to try multiple medications to find which they respond to best. Due to the anonymous nature of mutual-support groups, it is difficult for researchers to determine their success rates compared with those led by health professionals. Alcohol use disorder (AUD) is a medical condition that doctors diagnose when a patient’s drinking causes distress or harm. The condition can range from mild to severe and is diagnosed when a patient answers “yes” to two or more of the following questions. An evaluation by an addiction professional helps determine the extent of the problem and identifies appropriate treatment options.

Types of Behavioral Treatments

Participants allocated to the self-control training condition will receive a ‘challenging’ version of the Stroop task while participants in the control condition will receive an ‘easy’ version, which is not expected to lead to any substantive improvements on self-control capacity. It is delivered on one occasion to capitalize on the innovation and brevity of this approach. Other brief interventions are delivered over several drinking days, but these can be burdensome, and the feasibility of such an approach is low.

drinking intervention

Therefore, research is calibrated to be acceptable for a rather long duration by the school staff, who are frequently requested for various issues, including other studies. Regular email and phone contacts are carried out to enhance the how to do an intervention for an alcoholic involvement of schools in the project, along with a newsletter describing the progress of the research itself. It is also sent to control group #4 with information on data collection only and without mention of the intervention.

The third and last wave of data collection is planned for the period from April to December 2023. The main results will be disseminated by the end of 2024, through publications and conference communications. During the protocol preparation (2020–2021), the Scientific committee met three times. For both committees, a comprehensive update of the trial is presented, and any concern is fully addressed. The research team meets every 2 weeks to discuss the progress of the trial as well as any issues that may occur. Considering no specific harmful effect is expected to lead to the trial stopping, a data safety monitoring board has not been considered as necessary.

  • Individuals are advised to talk to their doctors about the best form of primary treatment.
  • For these reasons, it
    is contraindicated to put girls in a coed setting for treatment.
  • Schools do not yet systematically identify and refer students in need
    of diagnosis and treatment for alcohol problems.
  • This may include, for example, a best friend, adult relatives or a member of your loved one’s faith.
  • Additional funding, equal perhaps to 10
    percent of all local awards, should be provided for a national

Overall, research in the health domain has presented consistent evidence to support the effectiveness of imagery-based interventions such as mental simulations on health related behavior. On the proposed mechanisms, however, the evidence is less conclusive with motivation and self-efficacy as identified as possible mechanisms for mental simulation effects. Event-specific prevention programs have been tested with promising effects, [32–34] and they represent an approach to combat college drinking beyond a global level, wherein students learn specific skills to prepare for an event anticipated to involve risky drinking. Targeted preventive education reduces ambiguity about how, when, and where to use a learned skill, which can thereby increase the successful implementation of that skill in real life. Although event-specific prevention outcomes are generally positive, their effects are often short-lived (e.g., spring break is just week, 21st birthdays are just one day).

It sometimes involves a member of your loved one’s faith or others who care about the person struggling with addiction. Your health care provider or mental health provider will ask additional questions based on your responses, symptoms and needs. Preparing and anticipating questions will help you make the most of your appointment time. Participants will complete the task to which they have been assigned immediately after the mental simulation task in the initial session and then repeat the Stroop task twice per day when prompted, at 7 am and 5 pm, throughout the four-week intervention period. All participants’ Stroop data will be uploaded to, and stored on, a remote computer server for subsequent retrieval to compliance analysis. There are several approaches to substance abuse interventions (see below); however, there are some general commonalities that apply to different intervention models.

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